In managing seemingly intractable intra-state conflict between groups, there is a need to be as flexible and pragmatic as possible. This may mean elements of recognition and engagement with functional state-like structures, as in the case of international engagement with Somaliland and recognition of the Somaliland passport. In some cases, the establishment of robust state-like structures by self-determination movements could also serve as ‘building blocks’ to reconstitute a failed state. Another important and successful example of pragmatic practice is the contested boundary between Nigeria and Benin.
Last demarcated in 1912, both sides have resolved to mediate between themselves and accept that until the border issue is resolved, in areas where there are competing claims both sides agreed not to place any attributes of their respective states – flags and so on.